Indian Cookery

May 17, 2018 | Author: | Category:Documents
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INDIAN COOKERY

A. CONDIMENTS AND SPICES Indian cuisine distinguished by its sophisticated use of spices and herbs and the influence of the longstanding and widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society. Food is an integral part of India’s culture, with cuisines differing according to community, region, and state. Indian cuisine is characterized by a great variety of foods, spices, and cooking techniques.

The most important spices in Indian cuisine are chilli pepper, black mustard seed (rai), cumin, turmeric, fenugreek, ginger, coriander and asafoetida (hing). Another very important spice is garam masala which is usually a powder of five or more dried spices, commonly comprised of cardamom, cinnamon and clove. Some leaves are commonly used like bay leaf, coriander leaf and mint leaf. The common use of curry leaves is typical of South Indian cuisine. In sweet dishes, cardamom, cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron and rose petal essence are used.

Aniseed (saunf): yellowish green seeds similar to cumin seeds. They have a sweet taste and are used to flavour certain dishes and are chewed after meals as they help in digestion. Aniseed has a cooling effect on our body and has high disgestive qualities. It also has medicinal properties as it is good for the stomach and liver. Asafoetida (hing): A pale yellow spice with a very strong and distinct flavour. It is used in small quantities to enhancethe flavour of the dish. It is high in minerals especially in calcium and iron. Good asafoetida will dissolve completely in water. Indian physicians like Charak and Bhattacharya describe the uses of this condiment as medicinal. Bay leaf (tej patta): these fragrant leaves are used in dry form. They are used in curries and rice preparations. Black pepper ( kali mirch) : freshly ground black pepper used in Indian cooking adds to the flavour of the dish. Cardamom (elaichi): this spice is native to India and is considered to be prized after saffron. Cardamom pods can be used with or without their husks and have a slightly pungent and aromatic taste. Cardamom pods come in a variety of colours: green, white, and black. The green and white can be used in both savoury and sweet dishes, but the black ones are mainly used in savoury dishes. Carom seeds (ajwain): these are dark broenish small seeds, which look like celery seeds and are slightly pungent. They give an aromatic flavour to the dish.

Chilli powder: a very fiery spice to be used with precaution. There are various brands in the market and the heat varies from brand to brand. You can adjust the quantity to adjust your taste. Degi mirch powder(paprika) may be used to enhance the colour of the dish.

Cinnamon (dalchini) : it has delicate sweet aroma. Cinnamon comes from the bark of tree. It is sold in both powdered and bark form. Cinnamon has warmingeffect and are used in small quantities.

Cloves (laung): these buds have a sharp, pungent, piquant, and bitter taste. They are used to flvour savoury and sweet dishes. Cloves have an aphrodisiac effect. They are used in pulaos, soups, preserves,etc. Corriander seeds (dhaniya): corriander seeds are ground to a fine powder. They are used extensively in Indian cooking to thicken curries. Ground corriander is an aromatic powder, has cooling effect and makes the food digestible.

Cumin seeds (jeera) : these seeds are extensively used in Indian cooking. These seeds have musty smell and a strong aroma and can be used whole or in powdered form. Cumin seeds are widely used in flavouring lentils and vegetables. They have volatile oil- thyminewhich is responsible for their taste and flavour. As a condiment, cumin seeds are very rich in iron,calcium,potassium,phosphorous and also sodium and are good for the liver, eyes, and stomach. Caraway seeds (Shahi jeera): These are fine, slender seeds a little darker in colour. They are used for flavouring curries and rice. Curry leaves (kadhi patta): they are available fresh or dried and are used for flavouring lentils and vegetables. Fenugreek seeds (methi dana) : these are dried, flat yellow seeds and have an aromatic bitter taste, which improves when lightly fried. These seeds are very hard and can be ground. In their powdered form they contitute an important ingredient in Indian curries, powders, and pastes. Garam masala: this is a mixture of spices and this is also called as ‘king of masalas’. This masala includes shahi jeera,black peppercorns,cloves, cinnamon, black and green cardamom, bay leaf. Turmeric powder (haldi) : this is a yellowish bitter tasting spice which is sold in powder form. It is used to give colour to the dish. Turmeric has medicinal properties. It is good for stomach problems, heals internal wounds, ans is an antiseptic.

DRY MASALA

GARAM MASALA Tools used: mortar and pestle Ingredient

Quantity

cardamom seeds

30 gm

Cinnamon stick

2 no

Whole cumin seeds

15gm

black peppercorns

15gm

fennel seeds

5gm

cloves bay leave

10-15 no 1no

Procedure

Grind all the seeds in coffee grinder. Store in airtight jar away from sunlight and heat.

CHAAT MASALA POWDER Tools used: mortar and pestle Ingredient

Quantity

roasted whole cumin seeds

10gm

dried pomegranate seeds

5gm

black peppercorns

2.5gm

mango powder

15gm

salt

Pinch

black salt

10gm

Procedure 1. Grind into a powder all the ingredients together Store in an air-tight container. 2. Chat masala has a salty taste. Mango powder and dried pomegranate seeds contribute tartness while the heat from black peppercorns balances out the blend. Nutty cumin, in addition to its obvious flavour when toasted, helps the digestion . Tip: pomegranate seeds are hard to grind, so first you may use the mortar.

TANDOORI MASALA Tools used: mortar and pestle Ingredient

Quantity

coriander seeds

30gm

cumin seeds

30gm

fenugreek seeds

10 gm

black peppercorns

10 gm

cloves

5 no

black cardamom pods

4 no

dehi mirch

30gm

dried fenugreek leaves

5gm

ground cinnamon

5gm

ground ginger

7gm

red chilli powder

MADRAS CURRY POWDER

2.5gm

Procedure

1. Preheat a small skillet over medium-high heat . 2. Add coriander seeds, cumin seeds, fenugreek seeds, black peppercorns, cloves and cardamom seeds and toast shaking the skillet every few seconds for about 1 minute, until fragrant .Remove from the heat and let spices cool down. Next grind to a fine powder. 3. Transfer to a bowl and mix in the remaining ingredients.

Tools used: mortar and pestle Ingredient

Quantity

Procedure

coriander seeds 15gm

10gm

cumin seeds

5gm

mustard seeds

3gm

black peppercorns

3gm

whole cloves

3gm

fenugreek seeds

5gm

ground turmeric

PUNJABI GARAM MASALA

1. Place all the ingredients except the turmeric in a spice grinder and grind until the textures resembles that of finely ground black pepper. Stir in the turmeric (which will give the mixture its characteristic yellow hue. 2. Store the blend in tightly sealed container.

Tools used: mortar and pestle Ingredient

Quantity

coriander seeds

15gm

cumin seeds

10gm

black peppercorns

3gm

whole cloves

5gm

cardamom seeds

3gm

cinnamon stick

3nos

bay leaves

3nos

SAMBAR POWDER

Procedure

1. Preheat a small skillet over medium-high heat. 2. Add all the spices and the bay leaves and toast shaking the skillet every few seconds. 3. Until coriander and cumin turn reddish brown, the cloves, peppercorns and cardamom turn ash black, the cinnamon and bay leaves appear brittle and crinkly and the mixture is fragrant. (1 to 2 minutes) Immediately transfer the nutty smelling spices to plate to cool. 4. Once they are cool to the touch, place them in a spice grinder and grind until the texture resembles ground black pepper. 5. The ground blend will be reddish brown and the aroma will be sweet and complex very different form that of the pre-toasted and posttoasted whole spice

Tools used: mortar and pestle Ingredient

Quantity

coriander seeds

2gm

cumin seeds

15gm

dried, split yellow chick peas

15gm

mustard seeds

15gm

fenugreek seeds

30gm

dry red chillies

5-6 nos

asafoetida

2 gm

peppercorns

7gm

curry leaves

6 nos

WET MASALA

Procedure

1. Roast all ingredients together over low heat in a non-stick skillet, until fragrant (just few seconds) Cool the spices and grind to a fine powder in a small coffee grinder. Store in an air tight jar.

GINGER- GARLIC PASTE Tools used: food processor or blender Ingredient

Quantity

garlic cloves, halved

115 g

fresh gingerroot, coarsely chopped

100 g

water

as needed

Tools used: mortar and pestle Ingredient

Quantity

CURRY PASTE coriander powder

2 tbsp.

cumin . fenugreek seeds

1 tbsp

fennel seeds tbsp.

1 tbsp.

curry leaves dried red chillies turmeric

1

chilli powder white wine vinegar

2

water

2 2

Procedure Place the garlic cloves, the gingerroot and water in a food processor or blender and process to make a past transfer to a glass jar with a lid and store in refrigerator for up to 3 weeks.

2 3 4

Method Grind the fenugreek seeds, fennel seeds, curry leaves and dried red chillies in a spice grinder. Transfer to a bowl and stir in the turmeric, chilli powder, coriander, cumin, vinegar and water to make a smooth paste. Heat the vegetable oil in a large heavy-bottom skillet, add the paste and cook over low heat, stirring constantly for 10 minutes, Let cool, then spoon into a glass jar with a lid. To preserve the curry paste, heat a little more oil in a clean pan and pour it over the surface

VINDALOO PASTE Tools used: mortar and pestle

Ingredient

Quantity

red chillies

10

fresh ginger, finely grated cloves garlic

50 g 12

fenugreek seeds

½ tsp

mustard seeds

1 tsp.

white wine vinegar

2-3 tbsp.

oil

5-6 tbsp.

onion, chopped

180 g

tomatoes, peeled,

250 g

Cardamom seeds from

8

Procedure

This is a very hot spicy paste. Chillies may be used with their seeds if you like particularly fiery food.

pods

B. Basic gravies and curries This is the most closely guarded of all the secrets of restaurant cooking. Once prepared, it has a very smooth texture and a pale golden colour. Taste it and it is pleasant with a subtle curry flavour. Every good restaurant has a large pan of the sauce always at hand, with the recipe varying only slightly from chef to chef. It forms the base of all the restaurant curries from the mild to the very hot and spicy. It will keep in a refrigerator for up to five days, although the best restaurants will prepare no more than three days’ requirement in one go. Together with your spices, the prior preparation of the curry sauce, and whatever meat or fish you propose to use, a selection of dishes can be prepared in a matter of minutes. The making of the curry sauce is in fact simple, with no special equipment required other than a blender. It is essential, though, that you follow strictly the instructions for blending and skimming as these are the two procedures that can make the difference between a good curry sauce and a poor one.

Kadhai gravy This is a gravy which is selectively used in Indian cuisine for making kadhai dishes only like kadhai paneer or sabz kadhai or chicken kadhai . The characteristic flavours of this gravy are sweet , sour , bitter , astringent, salt, spicy . All six flavours must be felt in this gravy to make it a complete dish.

Tools used: kadhai,patila,ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Procedure

Tomatoes

500 gm

Cream

50 ml

oil

50 ml

Ginger

10 gm

Garlic

10 gm

green chillies

8 gm

green coriander

30 gm

capsicum

50 gm

ginger garlic paste

20 gm

kadhai spices, crushed

10 gm

Heat oil, crackle the crushed spices , add garlic chopped and sauté till golden brown. Add half of ginger chopped and green chilies , sauté and then add capsicum purée. Cook continuously till the oil separates . Add ginger garlic paste and sauté till oil comes up.Add chopped tomatoes and sauté till soft . now Add half of ginger , green chilies , a pinch of sugar,Kasoori methi powder and cream . Stir well and simmer . Finish with crushed spices and chopped coriander.

Although the last two ingredients are used when you are making a particular dish like kadhai paneer , and these are put in the end and served otherwise the gravy alone need not require to add these ingredients .

(corriander seeds, fennel seeds, cumin seeds, black pepper whole, red chili whole) red chili powder

5 gm

turmeric powder

2 gm

corriander powder

10 gm

salt

20 gm

kasoori methi powder

5 gm

sugar

5 gm

Usage This is the only gravy which is used alone and not in combination of other ingredients. The six flovours mentioned above are obtained by sugar, tomatoes, crushed coriander ,ginger , salt and spices.

Yellow gravy

This is a rich gravy with yellowish colour which helps in making a beautiful product when used alone or in combination of other basic sauces. Generally small establishments prepare only three basic sauces i.e. makhni , masala and yellow gravy to create the menu.

Tools used: kadhai,patila,ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

brown onion

250gm

yoghurt

200gm

ginger garlic paste

15gm

cashew

50gm

tomato paste

15gm

salt

to taste

oil

100ml

red chilli powder

5gm

turmeric powder

10gm

coriander powder

5gm

Procedure Make a paste of brown onion -yoghurt and make another paste of cahewnut only but it should be fried to a golden colour first. Now heat oil , sauté ginger garlic paste, powdered spices and tomato paste . Once the oil separates , add yoghurt and onion paste . Simmer till a boil comes , add cashew paste and simmer till the sauce is cooked well and oil starts appearing on the surface . The gravy should be having plenty of oil to start with as the cashew will absorb lots of oil and the yoghurt paste should be added in a thin state as it will make the cooking easy and smooth.

Brown gravy This is another very importantly used gravy in Indian cuisine . The main purpose of this gravy is to give a binding base to the curries where richness is not required and simultaneously the curry look is also required like as egg curry. It is very simple to make and utterly useful .

Tools used: kadhai,patila,ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Procedure

Onion

500gm

Tomato

750gm

Onions is sauteed in oil till it starts browning and then ginger garlic paste is added. once it satrts sticking to the base , add tomatoes with powdered spices and salt . saute well till oil appears on top and the tomatoes are cooked .

oil

100 ml

ginger garlic paste

30 gm

red chili powder

10 gm

turmeric powder

5 gm

coriander powder

15 gm

salt

to taste

garam masala powder

10 gm

Now blitze the sauce and bring it back to the sauce pan and simmer further. We may add water if required to avoid sticking or over thick gravy . Now the colour of pureed gravy will satrt changing from orangish colour to brownish . Simmer for 5 more minutes till a red oil start oozing from the gravy and it gives a granular appearance to the gravy. Keep aside. This gravy is generally used to make basic curries like chicken curry or egg curry where the key ingredient is sauteed in oil and further simmered in this basic sauce till cooked Or it can be used in proportional quantities with other basic sauces to create delicacies like matar paneer. Here primarily brown gravy and a dash of white gravy gives a required taste of matar paneer .

Masala gravy This is the most versatile Indian gravy as it incorporate onion and tomato and thus can be used in preparing most of the recipes as the dishes in India mostly require these two ingredients in one way or the other. This is also called ‘Kanda masala’ in Maharashtra as the word ‘Kanda’ means onion in Marathi language.

Tools used: kadhai,patila,ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Procedure

Oil

100ml

ginger garlic paste-

30 gm

Onion

500gm

tomatoes

450 gm

tomato paste

25 gm

Red chili powder

5 gm

Heat oil and saute onions till it becomes evenly golden brown and crisp, but not dark brown.Now add ginger garlic paste dissolved in water . It instantly cools it off. Keep coking and while the water is reduced , the onions are softened as well to give the gravy a smooth appearance.The onion in uk is very tough so extra cooking time is required . Hence after the onions are browned , addition of water helps them cook properly.

turmeric powder

3 gm

coriander powder

5 gm

salt

to taste

Once the ginger garlic paste start sticking on pan and showing brown colour , add turmeric -saute and then tomatoes , add salt and spices. Saute well , till the tomatoes are cooked and the oil appears on surface . Now add the tomato paste to the sauce and simmered .The gravy must look shiny and chunky yet no clear signs of onion and tomatoes which must be semi dissolved during cooking. The cooking should be done on medium flame and if it sticks to the pan during the process, small amount of water can be added occasionally.else it will give a blackish appearance . All the gravies must be cooked in extra amount of oil as it helps in cooking and helps in retaining the freshness of the ingredients once stored for further use.

Usage The gravy is a base to endless dishes like paneer lababdar where the paneer is simmered in the sauce with extra load of cream to look orange in colour and otherwise it can always be used in measured combination with other basic sauces to create ever favourite dishes like chicken do pyaza and aloo dum masala. White gravy

This sauce was developed during the moghul era,when the moghul emperors wanted to enjoy moon light dinner in the courtyards of Taj mahal .The creaminess of the gravy was prepared to match the mood of the evening .

Tools used: kadhai,patila,ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Onion

250 gm

cashew

100 gm

water

as needed

Oil

100 ml

green cardamom, bay leaf

2 no each

green chillies

2 no

ginger garlic paste

30 gm

yoghurt

100ml

cream

50ml

white pepper powder

1tsp

green cardamom powder

1tsp

Procedure Simmer cashewnuts in boiling water for 5 minutes and drain. It washes away the impurities . Mix the onion chunks with cashew nuts and water simmer till the onions are soft. Drain the mixture and grind Heat oil, crackle whole garam masala and slit chilies. Add ginger garlic paste. Saute well till it start’s browning. Pour beaten yogurt with some water and put on slow flame till it starts boiling. Care should be taken at this stage for temperature . If raised , it may result in curdled yoghurt. You can beat the yoghurt with 20ml of cream . It helps in stabilization. Once it boils, add cashew onion paste and stir it on simmering heat till oil appears on the surface .Finish with white pepper powder and green cardamom powder .

UsageThe sauce is generally used to prepare rich dishes like shahi paneer dishes where the paneer cubes are simmered in the sauce else it is also used in measured combination of other basic sauces to create ever favourite dishes like qorma and pasanda .

Makhni gravy Prepared primarily with tomatoes and no onion .

Tools used: kadhai,patila,ladle No. of portions: 4

Ingredient

Quantity

Tomatoes

500gm

Green chillies

1 no

Green coriander root

20 gm

garlic

4 pods

Ginger

1/2 ” piece

green cardamom, bayleaf , cinnamon stick

5 gm altogether

red chilli powder

5 gm

salt

to taste

oil

15 ml

water

as needed

kasoori methi leaves

5

Procedure 1 Boil the tomatoes with all of the above and simmer till tomatoes are cooked . Grind and strain in a pot, leaving aside the residue. 2 Heat oil and sauté ginger garlic paste followed by tomato paste and spices. Pour the strained tomato sauce and simmer with butter and sugar till the oil floats on top. finish with cream and keep aside for further use.

gm

Makhni sauce is mainly used in the preparation of Chicken makhni and paneer makhni where simply the pieces are simmered in the sauce and served . And otherwise , its generally used in measured combination of other basic sauces to create some most famous delicacies like chicken tikka masala

Rice and Staples The rice used in most Indian cooking is long grained rice and there are a few common varieties. And since it is possible that this species originated in Northern India, the term Indian rice seems appropriate.

The various kinds of rice form the staple food for about half of the world’s population. It is eaten extensively all over the South and East of Asia as well as in Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and the West Indies. In terms of grain production it is second only to maize.

History

It is believed that the basic plant has been growing in Asia for as much as 5,000 years and maybe more. In India it first appeared in the north east and it can still be found growing wild as a perennial grass in Nepal and some parts of Assam. The plant may also be indigenous to China and other Asian counties or may have been spread by trade.

It was almost certainly domesticated over 4000 years ago and then spread throughout India, then Asia and then to the rest of the world (by 1700 it had reached America).

Anything this old and this important always has cultural as well as culinary significant, and rice is associated with fertility and prosperity (which is why we throw it at weddings).

Cultivation

It is a member of the grass family (like wheat and barley but it grows anywhere from 3 to 6 feet high) so it is a cereal grain.

For its cultivation all rice including Indian rice needs fairly specific climatic conditions or the ability to simulate them. The seedlings are often planted underwater, or the fields flooded shortly afterwards. This is to protect the growing plant from weeds and vermin and is simply the cheapest form of weed and pest control; it is not actually essential to growing the crop. The plants do, however, require lots and lots of water in the early part of growth, followed by continuous hot dry weather (so we’ve not a cat in hell’s chance of growing it in the UK).

Types of Indian rice

Outside India countries have many different varieties often to suit local culinary tastes, For example Japanese sushi and sashimi use a short grained variety (Japonica) which becomes sticky when cooked.

Other short or medium grained varieties are used for various purposes in America, the UK, the West. I will just stick with the common Indian rice varieties here.

For a food that is essentially quite bland, there are an astonishing number of different varieties. You may think Basmati is a variety – no there are about a dozen variants of Basmati. It is thought that there are over 40,000 varieties of cultivated rice as the scientists continually try to improve flavour, yields, disease resistance and so on.

It can also be bought with or without the outer skin; with the skin it is brown, if the skin is removed (by mechanical polishing) then this is the usual white variety that people are most familiar with.

To avoid being too encyclopaedic (and boring) we will just look at the major categories here.

Basmati

Probably the most well known variety of Indian rice and the one usually recommended for Indian food. It is grown in India and Pakistan in the Himalayan foothills, where it is thought to have originated – it is known as "the prince if rices".

It is very long and slender grained and, unless it is overcooked, should not be sticky, but fluffy with separated grains. It has a distinctive delicate fragrance (in Sanskrit it means ‘the fragrant one") and a nutty flavour.

There are dozens of varieties of Basmati rice, some traditional some hydrids, and there is also a lot of rice passed off as Basmati which isn’t.

Patna

Although this is sometimes used as a general term for any long grained rice, it is a specific variety. It is grown in and around Bihar (the state capital being Patna) in the Ganges plains.

It is closely related to Basmati but not quite as fragrant and again is long grained. In the West, the UK and USA in particular it is most highly regarded and probably the most used.

Basmati and Patna are the best two to use for plain boiled or aromatic rice but you can also use other varieties as long as they are long grain. Ponni

If you want to be purist when making idlis this variety was developed in Southern India and is specifically used for idlis. The only time I have tried it was when I was in India and my Indian colleagues pointed out over breakfast that my idlis were made with a special type of rice. It does contain less starch than most varieties of Indian rices.

Other varieties Brown

Most varieties can be bought brown as well as white. The husk is removed but the bran layer is not polished off. This gives a nuttier taste and is a lot more nutritious as it retains more vitamins, minerals and fibre. It is unlikely ever to get sticky but it does take considerably longer to cook to soft. It has a slightly chewier texture than the white grains which you may or may not like. Wild

This is a related grass plant but is not a true rice. It is mainly grown and used in North America where it is nearly always sold as whole grain. It has the dietary advantage that it is naturally gluten free, it is also very rich in protein, mineral and fibre.

Dals Dals are a mainstay of the Indian diet and, since a great many Indians are vegetarian, a great source of protein.

They are often called pulses in dietary terms and are members of the legume family of vegetables. Essentially they are any one of a number of sorts of peas or beans that are dried, stripped of their outer hulls and split. As well as being a source of protein, including essential amino acids, Indian lentils also provide dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals, and they are an excellent source of iron. When eaten with rice, as is often the case in much of India, the resultant meal is, from a dietary point of view, almost perfect. To illustrate how important this food is, India produces about 1.5 million tonnes of lentils per year, which is almost half the entire world production, and most of it is consumed domestically.

Types of Indian Lentils

Chana Daal

This daal is yellow and probably the largest Indian lentil, it has a nutty sweet flavour. Also called Bengal gram, kala chana and a significant number of other things, these are one of the world’s oldest cultivated vegetable. This and toor daal are the most popular Indian lentils and chana daal in particular is very versatile. Chana daal is an excellent food for diabetics. They are high in protein and fibre and have a very low glycemic index (that is they have almost no effect on blood sugar levels). Although like most lentils, chana daal cooks quite quickly, less than 10 minutes, it is best to soak them for a couple of hours first. A lot of Indian cookery books will also tell you to ‘pick over’ the daal first to remove any small stones, bits that still have the brown hull on then and any other bits of stray debris.

Masoor daal These are salmon coloured and look a little like puy lentils. When cooked they turn a more golden colour and become quite mushy. They are used all over Asia as well as the Middle East and Africa and are probably the Indian lentils we know best in the west. These daal cook quickly but again it is better to soak them before cooking. Since they become soft, they are sometimes mashed to add to other dishes as a sort of very tasty thickening agent.

Masoor daal has a creamy texture and a sort of warm earthy taste. They are excellent with onions to make a more soupy dish and are good with meat stews.

Moong daal Moong beans probably originated in India and Pakistan but are now cultivated all over South East Asia, particularly in China – this is the bean from which bean sprouts grow. These can be bought both with an without their hulls; with them they are green (they are sometimes called green beans). The whole bean can be used simply by boiling with onion, ginger and spices, and then simmering until soft. The skins give them a stronger, more robust flavour than the split beans. They are used like this in some Southern Indian dishes.

When the shell is removed they become moong daal, a light yellow daal which is very easy to cook and to digest. As well as being used to make daal dishes, the daal can be ground to a paste to make a batter for pancakes. They are also mixed with rice and spices to make a breakfast snack called pongal.

Urad daal This is also a proper Indian lentil, native to India and has been around for a very long time. It is very nutritious and another pulse that is recommended for diabetics. Again this can be bought both with and without its outer hull.

With the shell it is black (and sometimes called black gram), and have a very pungent aroma and a rich earthy flavour. They are used like this to make the Punjabi dish Dal Makhani which is a sort of vegetarian equivalent to butter chicken.

Without the outer shell (washed) the lentils are a creamy colour, they are milder, less earthy and slightly chewier. Like this they are used to make dosas and idlis and can be added to flour to make breads. They can also be used with onion and tomato and spices to make a lovely daal curry.

Toor daal This is another plant that has been cultivated for over 3000 years. It is also known as toovar and arhar and the lentils are pale yellow resembling chana daal but smaller. It is a split pigeon pea with a quite mild with a slightly nutty taste. Nutritionally they are very balanced but particularly provide a lot of protein, carbohydrates and important amino acids. They can be bought as whole pigeon peas which have a reddish brown skin but I have never used them like that. The skinned, split daal can be bought either with or without an oily coating. The oil coating is to improve the shelf life and should be washed off before using.

Toor daal is a staple of Southern India particularly Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, where it is used to make sambar – a vegetable stew cooked with toor in tamarind water – and rasam soup. It is also frequently ground into flour such as in kandi podi – a mixture of ground lentils and spices.

INDIAN BREADS Bread made from wheat flour is eaten mostly in the Northern parts of India whilst rice is the main staple of the South. Most bread in the north of India is made from milled wheat flour, either atta or maida.In the south of India where rice is the main staple, the breads are more like pancakes or crêpes and can be made from a variety of flours including rice flour and lentil flour. These are often fermented as a batter and then cooked like a pancake.

Northern style bread, particularly paratha is often stuffed with mashed vegetables creating a snack meal – ideal for a packed lunch. In the south the dosas and uttapam are also used as a carrier for other food.

Wheat Breads The most common northern Indian breads are chapati and roti, these are very similar, chapatis are, perhaps, slightly thinner. These breads are simply flour and water with a little salt and maybe some ghee. They are made from atta flour and other name that you might come across for roti, phulka and rotli are pretty much the same thing.

A really excellent bread that I had in Poona is romali roti. This is essentially roti dough but made with a mix of maida and atta. It is rolled out tissue thin and cooked on an upturned wok or large frying pan for a less than a minute. It is folded like a large handkerchief to give several layers of beautifully soft bread.

Parathas are usually thicker and use ghee or oil in the dough which makes them more flaky when cooked. Traditionally they are made more flakey by rolling out, brushing with melted ghee, then folding and rolling out again repeatedly, layering the dough. Paratha is also make from atta flour and probably the most popular bread in Indian cuisine and this is partly because of its versatility. It can be made in any shape, it can be stuffed with virtually anything and is eaten at all times of day.

Naan bread is an Indian bread which is leaven and very popular in the west. It is made with maida flour, a general purpose flour which is a softer flour more finely milled. It can be leavened with either yeast or baking powder. For the best naans the dough is made with yoghurt or milk curd rather than water. Naans are traditionally made in a tandoor oven rather than being pan fried so they end up flat on one side but risen on the other.

A variant of this is the kulcha, where the dough is similar to naan but can be pan fried or grilled or cooked in an oven. Kulchas are a Punjabi speciality and often also have mashed potatoes, minced onion and spices mixed in with the dough

Another interesting Indian bread is the poori. This is made like a roti but is deep fried so it blows up like a balloon. It’s a strange mix of crisp and soft. Pooris can be made with all sorts of different flour; traditional atta or you can mix in some rice flour or semolina.

Bathura is another deep fried bread; its like a cross between kulcha and poori – it uses yoghurt and baking powder in the dough but is deep fried.

Gakhar is a mughlai bread high in oil content. The dough is made with oil rather than water and they are first steamed, then roasted in an oven and then hhot ghee is poured over them.

Bhakri is a hard bread, more like a biscuit; like a hard, coarse chapati, and although sometimes made with wheat flour can also be made with millet or sorghum flours. This is real rustic food from Maharshtra and Gujerat and is often eaten by farmer in the fields, but it is still served at traditional Indian meals

Bread from other flours

In the South of India wheat flour breads are less common. Instead they make delicious things with rice flour, lentil flour and semolina. These are often more like pancakes than bread but serve the same function.

One of the most popular Indian breads in the south is the dosa. This is a pancake made from a mixture of rice and lentil flour. Traditionally the rice is ponni rice which was developed and is grown in Tamil Nadu; the lentils are washed urad dhal. Both of these are ground very fine, made into a batter and left to ferment overnight before cooking in a frying pan or tava like a pancake. This can be eaten at breakfast with chutney or pickles, or for dinner with fish or a curry.

There are hundreds variations on the dosa; a quick snack version called rava dosa is made from rice flour, wheat flour and semolina (rava), it does not need to be fermented and can be made in minutes. Dosas can also be made just from wheat flour like simple pancakes.You can include onions and spices, cheese, vegetables and chutneys to create all sorts of variation.

A cousin of the dosa is the uttapam. This is a similar batter mix to the traditional dosa but is made into a thicker pancake and is cooked with tomatoes and onions and chilli. Other vegetables are optional and the result is like a pizza in appearance.

Idlis are another creation from a similar batter but with less rice in proportion to the dhal. Again the batter is fermented but this time the batter is steamed in an idli steamer (like an old fashioned egg poacher). These are normally a breakfast dish served with chutney or sambar.

Appams or hoppers are even simpler, using only rice flour, they are made into little thin bowl shaped pancakes and are popular all over southern India and Sri Lanka. Again there are all the variations using eggs, milk or honey

Various types of lentil flours are used to make vada. These are deep fried breads like doughnuts, they are very popular in the south of India where they have been made since records began. Yet again there are loads of variants – rava vada (semolina flour again), potatoes and different types of lentils.

Pathiri is a very simple rice Indian bread eaten in the Kerala region – principally my Muslims. It is like a poppadom made from rice flour.

Which brings us to the humble poppadum itself – a cracker or type of flatbread extremely popular in the west. It can be eaten with dips broken into food, used to make wraps or eaten like crisps. They are made from gram flour (besam) which is flour made from chickpeas. Traditionally the flour is made into a batter and then dried in the sun (so no chance in the UK then). Poppadoms are made all over India and there are as many spellings as there are varieties.

TANDOOR COOKING

INTRODUCTION THE TRADITIONAL rounded-top tandoor oven is made of brick and clay. It is used to bake foods over direct heat, which is produced by a smoky fire. The dough for the delicious Indian breads is slapped directly on to the oven’s clay walls and left to bake until puffy and lightly browned. Meats cooked in the tall, rather cylindrical tandoor are usually skewered and thrust into the oven’s heat, which is so intense (usually over 500°F) that it cooks a chicken half in less than five minutes. Nowadays, tandoors are highly sophisticated with the vitreous clay pot, which sometimes can crack, being replaced by long-lasting ceramics, allowing high temperatures over long periods. Punjab in India is known today as the `home of the tandoor’. Its history, however, actually goes back to the dawn of civilisation from where it spread from Arab countries to India and finally, the West. The tandoor in its simplest form is a large clay jar with an opening at the bottom for adding and removing fuel. It is usually made of good clay and shredded coir rope and, once complete, a paste of mustard oil, jaggery, yoghurt and ground spinach is rubbed on the inside to harden it up. In Afghanistan, the tandoor is usually built into the ground. Most homes are too poor to have their own so they prepare their own dough and take it to the tandoor bakery (the `nanwaee’) to be baked. A long notched stick called a chobe khat keeps note of the number of breads baked for a household each day. The word tandoor is derived from the Babylonian word `tinuru’ — from the Semitic word narmeaning fire. Hebrew and Arabic then made it tannur, then tandur in Turkey, Central Asia and, finally Pakistan and India, which made it famous worldwide. The first tandoor in India in a restaurant is said to have been in the Kashmiri Moti Mahal in New Delhi in 1948. Several restaurants have claimed to be the first to have a tandoor in Britain. Initial research suggested the man responsible was, in fact, Mahendra Kaul who started the excellent Gaylord group in 1959 and so, this famous restaurant seems to have been responsible for the earliest introduction of tandoori style dishes to the U.K., although only some ten years later the tandoor became widely used in Britain. Nowadays, the tandoor is in use all over and wherever the Indian restaurant industry thrives. Many Pakistani and Kashmiri restaurants continue to use the tandoor for breads only, preferring to grill their kebabs whilst others have expanded the uses of the versatile tandoorto give that special flavour to meat and fish.

ORIGIN AND HISTORY Tandoor originated in Persia (Iran) and brought to India via Afghanistan by Arabs

Evidence also exists that Tandoor may have been native to India dating back to 3000 BC. Small mud plastered ovens resembling Tandoor with a side door have been found in Harappa and Mohenjodero settlements of ancient Indus valley.

‘Tandoor’ is derived from Persian (Iranian) word ‘Tannur’, derived from Babylonian word ‘tinuru’ based on Semitic word nar meaning fire. In Turkey, Tannur became Tandur.

In Afghanistan, the Tandoor was built in the ground and served as a bread making area for the entire communities.

During fourteenth century, a noted poet, Amir Khusrau describes Naan-e-tanuk (light bread), and Naan-e- Tanuri (Cooked in Tandoor) at the imperial court in Delhi.

Jahangir is credited with making Tandoor portable. The cooks were instructed to transport Tandoor to anywhere he traveled. Tandoor was used to make Naan, Roast whole baby chicks (Chooza) and large pieces of lamb.

In India, the first built-in Tandoor at a restaurant was installed at Moti Mahal Restaurant in 1948 in Delhi. Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed Naan and Tandoori chicken, making them a part of official banquets for visiting foreign heads of States.

Tandoori chicken originated during Jahangir. Modern commercial recipe for Tandoori chicken is attributed to the original Moti Mahal restaurant in Peshawar during 1920s.

Types of tandoor and their uses

In a layman’s parlance tandoor is clay oven with a hole in the bottom. The hole is used for adding and removing fuel .Typically, a special type of clay along with shredded coir rope is used to prepare the oven. To solidify the oven a special paste of mustard oil, jaggery, yoghurt and ground spinach is rubbed inside the oven. The history of tandoor indeed goes back to Arab countries from where it has spread to India and finally to western countries. The word tandoor has been derived from Babylonian word ‘tinuru’ from the Semitic word ‘nar’ meaning fire. Arabic then made it tannur and then Turkey

and Central Asia made it tandoor. In ancient times there were only clay tandoor but now a days, there are different types of tandoor as discussed below.

Square Tandoor: Square tandoor is commonly used by all restaurants across the world in their kitchen. To make square tandoor, first Stainless Steel Square Box is made and given smooth finish around edges. After box is made, clay pot is installed inside the box and remaining space is covered with Fiber Blanket and Thermal Insulation to keep heat inside the clay pot.

Till 2004 most of the restaurants were using tandoors with charcoal as fuel. All cooks prefer charcoal due to unique combination of clay and charcoal in Tandoori cooking as charcoal burns slowly and keep clay pot hot for longer time.

But charcoal has its own issues like irregular supply from vendors and requires special exhaust hood in kitchen. Due to these factors, most restaurant users stopped using Charcoal as fuel and shifted to Gas Tandoors.

Gas tandoors are similar to Square tandoors and only difference is fuel which can be Natural Gas or Propane (L.P.G). Gas tandoors are fitted with burners and unique Baffle plate which sits on burners, to deflect flame of the burner, to heat up clay pot.

Gas Tandoors are as good as charcoal tandoors though some Tandoori lovers may disagree. Gas tandoors are more users friendly, easy to operate clean fuel and offer economical operating cost. Before buying Gas Tandoors, please make sure about kind of burners used, whether burner comes with Pilot Safety System and Igniter as unsafe Gas Burner installation can be dangerous. Therefore buy Gas Tandoors which are certified by recognized agencies and come with “CE “or “NSF” or “ETL” labels.

A Regular size Square tandoor is good for 60 seats Restaurant for Bread and Kebab use. If you have more seats, it is suggested to buy 2 tandoors and use 1 for Bread and other for Kebabs.

Restaurant Clay Tandoori Oven

Clay Pots

Clay pots for tandoors are prepared by hand with great care. The clay for the tandoor is available freely but cautious approach should be taken when selecting the best clay for this purpose. In Asian countries like India, clay is sourced from special locations and is cleaned and refined for making clay pot. Various additives like hay and hairs of goats & sheep’s hair are added in the clay mixture in order to give special strength as temperatures ranging upto 1000 degrees centigrade can be seen in clay pots.

Clay Pot for Tandoori Oven

Catering/Drum Tandoor

In Catering/Drum Tandoor, clay pot is fitted in Steel or Stainless Steel Barrel, in a plain design with S. S. Straps tied round its top, centre and bottom for reinforcement. The pot inside the barrel is duly insulated with thermal Insulations, glass wool, rock salt and ceramic powders. A hole is there at the bottom of the drum to remove ashes .A wheel can also be attached at the bottom to move the drum from one place to another. Generally handles are provided for Lifting, Pushing and Pulling.

Most of the time, catering tandoor is used by Restaurant or caterers for On-Site cooking of Bread and Sheesh Kebab. As it is not used very often, Charcoal is preferred fuel for heating up the tandoor.

Now days, lot of customers are requesting Gas tandoors for their backyard or patio. Catering tandoor is good example of tandoor which can be used with Propane or Natural Gas due to large size.

Catering Tandoor Oven

Residential Tandoor:

After eating delicious food in restaurants, most of the customers want to experience same food in their homes also. To do that, there are many options.

If you plan to use tandoors during summer time for BBQ or Sheesh Kebab, you can select small Catering tandoors which are good for personal use and work on charcoal. Due to small size, these tandoors are portable and can be taken anywhere.

But if you want to use your tandoors very often, one can choose Gas Catering Tandoors or Regular sized Square Tandoors. Gas catering tandoors can be of Natural Gas or Propane and take about 25 minutes to be ready to use.

Regular Size Square tandoor is good option if you want to install tandoor in your kitchen and use it on daily basis. Please note that you need to have good quality exhaust in kitchen to use tandoor on regular basis.

REGIONAL CUISINES OF INDIA KASHMIR

Kashmiri cooking developed through the ages as two great schools of culinary craftsmanshipKashmiri ‘Pandit’ and ‘Muslim’. The basic difference between the two was that the Hindus used ‘hing and curd’ and the Muslims ‘onions and garlic’. Now a few points of interest about the two cuisines. Though Brahmins, Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) have generally been great meat eaters. They prefer goat, and preferably, young goat, Meat is usually cut into somewhat large pieces and is mostly chosen from the legs, neck, breast, ribs and shoulder. Curd plays an important part in their cuisine.

No meat delicacy, except certain kababs, are cooked without curd. Even in vegetarian dishes, it is often added.Kashmiri food needs heat on two sides (top, and bottom) and the best results are obtained from a charcoal fire. However, in these days of electric stoves, gas and pressure cooking, less and less homes use charcoal (and oven serves as a good substitute). Originally, onions and garlic were never used in Kashmiri Pandit cooking, But as many acquired a taste for them, they have been included in certain recipes as optional. Though the basic principles of cooking are largely similar in almost all homes, certain Pandit families have adopted minor changes in both ingredients and methods. Today’s Kashmiri Pandit cuisine, therefore, is somewhat nouvelle in nature; modified the conditions the Kashmiri Pandits find themselves in, but without forsaking the traditions that make the cuisine so celebrated. The most important of these being the liberal use of aromatic spices, and the avoidance of onion and garlic. The result is sheer flavor and richness. Kashmiri Muslim cuisine is another gold mine of gourmet; cooking to explore, another treasure trove of exotica to savor. Except for some hotels and a few restaurants in India which promote or cater to regional tastes, this highly prized art too has remained largely confined to Kashmiri homes in and out of the Valley. However, professional cooks in Kashmir still continue to thrive, though more and more are beginning to face an uncertain future as the days of lavish hospitality are on the decline and current conditions hove reduced the occasions for feasting to traditional festivals, banquets and marriages. Known as wazas, these cooks are descendants of the master chefs who migrated from Samarkand and parts of Central Asia at the beginning of the fifteenth century and formed a vital part of the entourage that came to Kashmir during the reign of Timur (or Tamarlane). In the turbulent history of Kashmir, it is considered as an age of renaissance. As in days of old, the traditional Kashmiri Muslim banquet known as Wazwan; is a feast fit for kings. The word ‘waz’ means chef, a master of culinary arts and ‘wan’ means the shop with its full array of meats and delicacies. Perhaps nowhere else in India will you find a royal meal as unique and as elaborate as Wazwan. It consists of thirty-six courses, of which fifteen to thirty dishes are varieties of meat.

Many of the delicacies are cooked through the night under the expert supervision of a ‘VastaWaza’ or head chef, assisted by a retinue of ‘wazas’. This is Kashmir’s most formal meal. It is said that ‘the host must lay out all the food he has at his home before his guest and the guest, in turn, must reciprocate the gesture by doing full justice to the meal.’ The ‘Wazwan’ is not only a ritual, but a ceremony. Guests are seated in groups of four on a"dastarkhan" the traditional cushioned-seating on the floor-and share the meal on a large metal plate called a ‘trami’. A ‘Tasht-Nari’ or wash basin is taken around by attendants so that the guests can wash their hands. The only way to eat is with your fingers. The trami arrives heaped with rice and the first few courses. A typical trami consists of a mount of rice divided by four ‘seekhkababs’, four pieces of ‘methikorma’, one ‘tabakmaaz’ and two pieces of ‘tramimurgh’-one safed, one zafrani. Curd and chutney are served in small earthen pots. (If you’re ever invited to a Wazwan, remember one simple rule. After each morsel of meat you eat, take a spoonful or two of curd, it helps to digest the richness of the meal).

There are seven standard dishes that are a must for all Wazwans: Rista, Roghan Josh, TabakMaaz, Daniwal Korma, Aab Gosh, Marchwonganormirchi Korma and Gushtaba. Gushtaba is the final dish, the ‘full-stop’. Aab Gosh: Mutton cooked in milk. Daniwal Korma is speciality from the Nort Indian Cuisine and comes from the beautiful city of Jammu and Kashmir.It is a part of the main course menu and is alwys served during weddings and Special Occasions.It tastes best with Hot Naans. TabakMaaz is one delicacy that calls for rave reviews from food lovers all over the world. This Kashmiri delicacy is made with tender mutton ribs and a dash of spices. In this recipe, ribs of mutton are boiled and then fried in ghee with a hint of Kashmiri turmeric. These crispy fried ribs are an integral part of a conventional Wazawan banquet. It is only after the last trami has been served and the host says- ‘Bismillah’; that the copper covers are lifted and the feast begins: Savor a little of this, a little of that, but when you settle down to eat, please do justice to the cuisineeat with -your fingers.

DIFFERENT COOKING PROCESSES Baking: Cooking by dry heat in an oven or on a hot surface (not by direct exposure to fire). Bhuno: Browning the meat by adding water and scraping the sediments. Should be continued till the meat gets reddish brown. Boiling.. Softening food in boiling water. Dum: Cooking by placing live cools on the lid and also under the vessel to soften meat, vegetabies, pulao, etc. Can also be done in an oven.

Frying: Cooking in hot ghee, oil or any other fat, Deep frying is done in a large quantity of ghee or oil, in a deep vessel. Pressure cooking: Cooking under high pressure at a high temperature, in a pressure cooker. Roasting: Cooking (especially meat) by exposure to open ire.Seekhkababs for an example, Roasting may also be done in an oven (or a tondoor).

Simmering: Cooking on a slow fire over a long period.

Spluttering: Heating/smoking the ghee/oil and putting in the dry, whole spices so that they crackle and release their characteristic aroma. Steaming: Using double vessels, the outer vessel containing boiling water.

PUNJAB

Punjabi Cooking is defined by the land, by the people and by history. The Punjab covers a very large area in the North West of India and, since partition, most of it lies in Pakistan. The Indian government have also subdivided the Indian part of the region into the Punjab and Haryana states. We will cover them together here as the cooking styles are similar across the whole region. By culture, although Haryana is predominantly Hindu (mostly because Delhi, the India capital, is in there), there are a large number of Sikhs. Sikhism originated in the Punjab and Sikhs make up about 60% of the Indian Punjab state. This mix, together with the usual smatterings of Muslims, Jains, Buddhists, Jews and Christians, makes for a wide diversity of dishes in the region. The Punjab (which translates as ‘Five Rivers’) is one of the most fertile regions on earth and is known as the ‘Granary of India’ as it produces 20% of India’s wheat. It also produces rice, maize, barley, millet and sugarcane, and is famed for the quality of its dairy products. The climate is also extremely variable ranging from -2C in winter to about 45C in summer. The monsoon season is short this far north, just July and August, but with a steady amount of rain for the rest of the year. And this is the area that the Moghuls invaded and ruled in the 16th century bringing a new set of customs, values and, of course cooking styles bringing a whole new range of Punjabi recipes. Both rice and bread are used as staples with bread having a predominance and rice being used mostly for special occasions. Paratha and particularly stuffed paratha are very popular. Roti and naan breads are also widely eaten. The tandoor was probably brought from Persia and Afghanistan by the Moghuls and tandoori food is now a Punjabi cooking speciality, particularly tandoori chicken and chicken tikka, favourites in Anglo-Indian cuisine. The Moghuls brought many new culinary ideas and a host of new Punjabi recipes and many are still popular today. Dishes such as Butter Chicken (Murgh Makhani), kebabs, dopiaza and many more. The native Hindus did not abandon their own tastes and of course these traditional dishes survive in Delhi and the rest of region. But many of the Hindus in the area had fled, after partition, from the West Punjab (now in Pakistan) and this reinforced the integration of the culinary styles. A breakfast is likely to be some sort of stuffed paratha served with curds (or yoghurt) and pickles. This is quick and easy – it’s the equivalent of our jam on toast with a pot of yoghurt. The main meal of the day can be tremendously varied in Punjabi cooking. The Sikhs and Muslims are meat eaters and dishes like Rogan Josh and Bhuna Gosht are very common. Gosht is a Persian and Urdu word meaning meat or flesh. In practice, since Hindus are forbidden beef and Muslims are forbidden pork, it is most likely to mean mutton, and in India this usually means goat rather than sheep. In the west lamb would normally be used. (This is quite weird. I used to work with a large number of Indian colleagues and where we think mutton is tough and not worth eating, they think lamb is tasteless and not worth eating.)

The tandoor provides dishes like chicken tikka and tandoori chicken, kebabs too are a regular. And of course Biryani, imported by the Moghuls, and made from chicken or lamb is ever popular.

For the vegetarians the choice is also wide with lots of bean and lentil dishes. In the Punjab lentils are soaked, sometimes overnight, and cooked well so that they almost disintegrate and they are often served with cream. The Punjabi recipe of 5 different lentils (Five-Jewel Creamed Lentils) has become well known in the west. Other vegetables are also common. Potatoes, sweet potato, onions, mooli, okra and tomatoes are used, spiced up with ginger and other spices.

Goan Food

Goan Food is a bit of an oddity in India. The area obviously has Hindu origins but it was also a Portuguese colony for about 400 years. It is this together with its geographical position on the South West Coast of India that defines its cuisine. Goa is the smallest Indian state by area; at less then 1,500 square miles (3,700 square kms), it is less than one fifth the size of Wales with a population of about one and a half million. The Portuguese arrived as traders in about 1500AD and conquered it pretty soon after that. It remained a Portuguese colony until 1961. One of there main imports to the region was Christianity and although Hindus are still the majority (about 65%) there is still a large Catholic community (about 25%) in Goa. Geographically it lies in a tropical zone on the Arabian Sea, and the climate is hot and humid for most of the year. The summer daytime temperatures get up to 35°C with fearsome humidity; even the night time ‘winter’ temperatures only get down to about 20°C. They have a three month monsoon from June to September. Goa also has one of the largest and best natural harbours in the whole of Southern Asia. More than a third of the state is covered by equatorial forest and the area has an immensely rich biodiversity. From a culinary point of view this means the availability of a large range of produce. They grow rice, lentils and millet as staples, but also mangoes, bananas, pineapples and coconuts trees are everywhere. Its position on the coast also provides a lot of seafood, and this is a main feature of Goan food – the staple food is rice and fish. As well as big fish such as shark and tuna, there is also an abundance of shellfish – crabs, lobsters, prawns and mussels. The Hindi cuisine is vegetarian based; some Hindus of the area are strict vegetarians but there others who eat fish and chicken on occasion. The principle features of the vegetarian Hindu diet are lentils, squashes and gourds, bamboo shoots and rice. Non-vegetarian dishes are mainly fish in various forms curried, fried and dishes made from dried fish. The oil of choice for cooking is coconut oil. The Catholic cuisine include meat dishes such as Vindaloo, Xacuti, a more complex curry using many spices, and Sorpotel, a dish of pork, offal, spices and vinegar.

Rice is an important part of Goan food; they have form of rice pudding called arroz doce which is made from rice, milk, cinnamon, lemon juice and sugar and sanni which is a Goan version of idli with added coconut, and Patoleo which is saffron or banana leaves stuffed with rice, coconut and jaggery. Goan cooking is the home of the vindaloo but perhaps Goan food ought to be better known for its fish and rice and coconut.

KERALA Kerala recipes and Kerala cooking is defined by the land (and the sea), and by a history which has in turn influenced the demography of the state. Kerala’s coastline, the Malabar coast on the Arabian Sea is almost 370 miles long (600km) and this means two things. Firstly there is the obvious fact that there is a supply of fish and this features strongly in Kerala recipes, but its position has also meant that the area has been visited throughout history by Chinese, Greek, Roman and Middle Eastern explorers, traders and travellers. It is likely that Kerala has been inhabited since neolithic times, although the first written records date from about 300 BC. Both Chinese and Romans had trade links with the area as early as the 1st century BC and there are accounts of Roman merchants trading gold for pepper in the ancient port of Malabar (Murziris). During the 1st millennium AD the area was colonized by Jews, Christians and Muslims.

In 1498, the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrived at Kozhikode, which at the time was the primary trading port on the Malabar coast and a main city of Kerala. One of the principal motivations for the Europeans was to break the Arab monopoly of the spice trade which had been in place since before Islam was born. The Portuguese fairly quickly gained control of the pepper trade for the Europeans but this proved to be so lucrative that it was subsequently fought over and control passed from the Portuguese to the Dutch, then local control was re-established before the British arrived and India became part of the Empire.

One of the main effects of all this trading and colonization was to introduce a varied cultural population to the area. By comparison with the rest of India there are quite large Muslim and Christian populations, accounting for about 24% and 19% respectively, with Jews forming a substantial minority. The primary reason for the exceptional interest in this area is the sheer productiveness of the land and sea. As well as spices including pepper, cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon and nutmeg, the area produces rice, coconut, tea, coffee and cashew nuts to name but a few. And of course there’s the sea; there are over 200 fishing villages along the coastline with over 1 million fishermen catching over ½ million tonnes of fish a year. Nearly half the population is financially dependent on agriculture.

Kerala is quite narrow east to west and the eastern part of the state is bounded by the Western Ghats (a mountain range thought to be about 150 million years old) and over 40 rivers flow from these to the sea. The area is one of the most bio-diverse in the world. The rivers are fed by the wet tropical climate, the southwest monsoon providing between 4 and 5 months of rain. This combined with an average daily temperature which rarely drops below 20°C makes the area a veritable hothouse. Because of the presence of so many Muslims and Christians, pork and beef feature in the cuisine much more than in other parts of India. Unfortunately not much of this cuisine has made it to the west.

Kerala recipes are pretty spicy as with most southern states. The spices used are cinnamon and cloves, cardamom, ginger and turmeric, and of course cumin and coriander. They also make use of European imports such as garlic, tomatoes and bell peppers to a greater extent than most of India. Sauces with a slightly sour taste are very popular so tamarind and lime are used quite a bit

The staple for the area is, as with most of the south, rice. There is a breakfast dish puttu which is unique to Kerala, it is a dish of moistened rice and grated coconut. which is then steamed. Dosas, idlis and sambar are also popular together with a dish Idiyappam which are like steamed rice noodles.

Sambar is sort of vegetable broth made with lentils and tamarind, this is popular all over southern India including Kerala. Typical Keralite vegetable dishes are aviyal a mixture of vegetables with yoghurt (or milk curd) and coconut – typical vegetables would be yam or plantains and kaalan is a thicker version of this.

Non-vegetarian Kerala recipes are quite often stews using chicken, beef, lamb, or fish but they also fry beef, pork and fish – porichathu is a Kerala recipe where fish is fried with spices and rice flour. And of course there are numerous curries often using tomatoes.

A traditional banquet in Kerala is the Sadya, served during festivals. It is a vegetarian meal traditionally served on a banana leaf and consisting of rice, sambar, rasam, aviyal and many other dishes and usually followed by a sweet dish which is unusual for Kerala

HYDERABAD Andhra Recipes and their cooking style is, like many other states, defined by its history and climate. In some senses it is an ancient kingdom, mentioned in 3000 year old Sanskrit literature. It is situated on the South East coast of India.

Prior to independence in 1947, it was ruled by a Muslim, Nazim, of the Moghul dynasty as a semiautonomous kingdom and they were some of the richest people in the world at the time. Only a year after independence did it become integrated with India as the Hyderabad state. After about eight years of political shenanigans it merged with the Andhra state to become Andhra Pradesh with Hyderabad as its capital.

It is a big state, over twice the size of Ireland, and the climate varies as one would expect over such a large area. That said, it is basically a hot state and if there is any general rule of thumb with Indian food, the hotter the weather, the hotter the food. The staple is rice, which is typically boiled and eaten with curries but is also ground into flour to make attu, dosas and idlis. Andhra is also famous for its pickles and chutneys with many Andhra recipes for these being unique in India. Probably the best known pickle is gongura, which we would call sorrel leaves. Mango chutney, a relish now used all over the world, is also a native of Andhra Pradesh.

The Muslim influence, particularly in Hyderabad means that there are meat dishes – mainly lamb, chicken and fish. The most well known Andhra recipe is the Hyderabadi biryrani. This is actually a dish which probably originated in Persia and is now enjoyed in various forms all over the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East; the Nazim’s kitchen in Hyderabad claimed to make 49 different kinds from virtually anything edible The style prevalent in Andhra cooking is called kacchi where the meat and rice are cooked together. Kebabs and spicy stews are also common.

Most of the food is prepared with liberal amounts of spices and generous amounts of ghee are usually involved.Breakfast will usually be idlis or dosas, both made from ground rice and fermented black lentils sometimes eaten with some chutney – maybe coconut or ginger. Lunch is the main meal of the day, a starter is quite usual but is small in quantity. Its purpose is to get the appetite working and consists of hot or sour and very aromatic items, often raw or roasted chillies, ginger or pickles consumed with spices or seeds.

The main course varies from area to area. It could be some sort of curry (koora) which could be fried or sautéed vegetables often stuffed with curry powder or paste and cooked whole. It could be boiled

vegetables cooked in a tamarind and mustard paste. in other areas it could be vegetables and daal cooked together (pappu).

An essential part of Andhra cooking, without which no meal would be complete, are chutneys or pickles, eaten on their own or with rice. These are nearly always dynamite to western tastes usually being made with vegetables and roasted chillies. A very popular pickle is avakaya which is mangoes mixed with mustard powder, red chilli powder and mustard oil.

Chillies grow plentifully in Andhra most Andhra recipes use lots of chilli, and if you really want something spicy then try Korivi Khaaram which is basically just ripe red chillies ground up with tamarind and salt.Andhra cooking rarely includes soup or salad, instead there is pulusu which is a general term for any kind of vegetable cooked in very dilute tamarind juice sometimes with jaggery.

In the evening it is usual to eat simple snacks. Again these are nearly always quite hot and savoury. Examples are: pakoda – gram flour and chopped vegetable mixed and deep fried (these are the southern equivalent of pakora where the vegetable is dipped in the batter rather than mixed in with it). chekkalu – a deep fried mix of rice flour, gram and ground nuts chuppulu – again a deep fried rice cracker this time with sesame and ajwain seed.

Maharashtra

Maharashtrians consider anna, or food equals to Brahma, the creator of the universe. Maharashtrians believe in offering their food first to the God as a thanksgiving. Especially on festive occasions, specific mithais (sweets) are offered such as ukadiche modak (Ganesh Chaturthi) and satyanarayan puja sheera.

Maharashtrian cuisine has two major styles – Konkan and Varadi. A major portion of Maharashtra, which lies on the coast of the Arabian Sea, is called the Konkan having its own Konkani cuisine, which is a combination of Malvani, Gaud Saraswat Brahmin and Goan cuisines. The cuisine for the interior Maharashtra or the Vidarbha area is called Varadi cuisine.

Maharashtrian cuisine is packed with the subtly flavoured vegetarian delicacies and hot aromatic meat and fish curries, while the crunchy, crisp sweets are made mostly from rice and jiggery are also their favourite. The Konkan food has a lot of coconut in it and strong in masalas, red chillies and coriander.

The spicy Kolhapuri food emphasizes on mutton. The food of the Vidarbha region is prepared strong in red chillie powder and garlic. Mumbai has its own pot-pourri of dishes like vada pav, misal and pav bhaji, which are immensely popular across India.

Konkan Cuisine Konkan cuisine is strong in spice, red chillie powder, corianders, and prepared with coconut oil. It is prepared using a deep purple berry that has a pleasing sweet and sour taste, kokum and raw mango as souring agents along with tamarind and lime.

Maharashtrian Cuisine Maharashtrian cuisine is of two kinds – Konkani and Varadi. Despite its difference in style of preparation, both the style use lot of seafood and coconut. Peanut oil is the main cooking medium, and grated coconuts, peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetarian dishes.

Mumbai Chaat Mumbai has people with different working in different economy levels. Thousands of working families live on the diets prepared at street vendors. The most encouraging thing is these vendors even level with the taste of the expensive restaurants up to some extent.

BENGAL The food of the state of West Bengal is predominated by the coastal location of the state. The cuisine of the state is reputed for its preparations of fish delicacies. The chief among the food are the sweet meats and other confectioneries of the state are also famed all over the world.

The people of the state of West Bengal prefer to consume rice with the fish delicacies. The use of coconut in the preparations is present though unlike the other coastal cuisines, coconut oil is not used as a medium of cooking. The spicing of the food in West Bengal is different from that of the North Indian states.

The most popular delicacies of the state are the preparations of the sweet meats and the other sweetened delicacies. The meal of the regular Bengali ends with a sandesh or a rosogolla. The other sweetened preparations include a variety of payesh and the sweetened curd or mishti doi. Among the other food habits of the Bengali populace is the habit of consuming the betel leaf which is a favorite among the women of the state.

The state of West Bengal also organizes several food festivals in the city of Kolkata. The food festival organized by the Eastern Zonal Cultural Complex is well reputed. Other food festivals are organized in the heritage complex of Swabhumi and Nalban in Kolkata. The food of West Bengal is reputed across the globe. The cultural essence of West Bengal can thoroughly be enjoyed from the food prepared by them.

Karnataka Karnataka’s cuisine is characterised by distinct textures, flavours and tastes. The state’s vast culinary repertoire encompasses the earthy flavours of North Karnataka, the traditional fare of South Karnataka, the spicy dishes of the coastal region and the distinctive Kodava cuisine.Karnataka is blessed with a rich culinary heritage. Regional food habits differ vastly depending on locally available ingredients; the result is a richly varied spread. Udupi: The ubiquitous masala dosa has its origins in Udupi and a whole school of South Indian vegetarian cuisine takes its name from this town. This is ‘pure’ vegetarian food, sans onions or garlic. Pumpkins and gourds are the main ingredients, while sambar is prepared with ground coconut and coconut oil as its base. Rasam, a spicy pepper water, is an essential part of the menu and so are jackfruit, colocasia leaves, raw green bananas, mango pickle, red chillies and salt. Adyes (dumplings), ajadinas (dry curries), and chutneys, including one made of the skin of the ridge gourd, are specialities.

North Karnataka: The people of North Karnataka have a taste for wheat and jowar rottis (unleavened bread made of millet), a delicacy best savoured with a variety of chutnies or spicy curries. Apart from the jowar rottis and the trademark yenne badanekayi (brinjal curry), North Karnataka fare boasts a wide range of rottis to choose from: Jolada rotti, thali peet, khadak rotti and sajja rotti (bajra rotti). These rottis are accompanied by side dishes like yenne badanekayi, kaalu palya, soppu palya, usli (made from spicy sprouted gram) and jholka (made from channa dal flour). The best North Karnataka sweets are Dharwad peda, Gokak khardantu, Belgaum khunda, shenga holige and yellu holige, besides the local hoornada holige. Breakfast: As far as standard breakfast eats are concerned, you can choose from the popular uppittu (roasted semolina laced with chillies, coriander leaves, mustard and cumin seed), idli-sambar (steamed rice cakes and curry), thatte idlis (flat idlis), masala dosa (pancake with curried potato filling), set dosa, rava dosa, puri palya, uthapam, vada sambar or kesari bhath (a sweet made of semolina and sugar laced with saffron) and lots more. Desserts: To end your meal, you may wish to indulge in sweets like chiroti (a light flaky pastry sprinkled with granulated sugar and soaked in almond milk), Mysore pak, obbattu or holige (a flat, thin, wafer-like chappati filled with a mixture of jaggery, coconut or copra and sugar and fried gently on a skillet) and shavige payasa (made of milk, vermicelli, sugar and cardamom pods). Traditional Fare: The traditional culinary fare of Karnataka is a sumptuous spread that includes several essential menu items. These include protein-rich cereal salads like kosambri, palyas (warm vegetable salads made out of parboiled vegetables chopped fine and tossed with desiccated coconut, green chillies, curry leaves and mustard seasoning), gojju (a vegetable cooked in tamarind juice with chilli powder in it), tovve (cooked dal without too much seasoning), huli (a thick broth of lentils and vegetables cooked together with ground coconut, spices, tamarind and chilli powder) and pappad. A complete range of rice-based dishes, including chitranna (rice with lime juice, green chilli, turmeric powder sprinkled with fried groundnuts and coriander leaves), vangibhath (spiced rice with eggplant), and pulliyogare (rice flavoured with tamarind juice and spiced with groundnuts) form an integral part of the traditional repertoire. The most distinctive Karnataka dish, however, is the celebrated bisibelebhath, a unique combination of rice, dal, tamarind, chilli powder and a dash of cinnamon. In rural areas, ragi (steam-cooked finger millet rolled into large balls) served either with mutton curry or soppina saaru forms the staple diet. Mangalore: Spicy fish delicacies like kane fry (ladyfish), rice-based preparations and a wide variety of fruits are perennial favourites on the Mangalorean menu. Epicures believe that fresh coconut, chillies and the Mangalorean mind together create culinary magic. Mangaloreans love rice in all forms – red grain rice, sannas (idli fluffed with toddy or yeast), pancakes, rice rottis, kori rotti (a dry, crisp, almost wafer-thin rice rotti which is served with chicken curry as a delicacy), and neer dosa. Patrode, a special dish prepared by steaming stuffed colocasia leaves, is a delicacy not to be missed. Akki rotti, or rice rotti, is a favourite not only in Mangalore but also in Malnad and Kodagu. Kodagu: Kodava cuisine is very distinctive, as are the costumes, customs and festivals of the Kodavas. Pandi curry (pork curry) and kadumbuttu (rice dumplings) are arguably the most delectable dishes in the Kodava repertoire. The succulent koli curry (chicken curry), nool puttu (rice noodles), votti (rice rotti), and bembla curry (bamboo shoot curry) are also worth trying.

Malnads: Malnad cuisine is fusion of Coorgi and Mangalorean fare. Key preparations include the midigayi pickle (small raw mango), sandige, avalakki (beaten rice), and talipittu (akki rotti made of rice flour)

TAMIL NADU Tamil Nadu is famous for its hospitality and its deep belief that serving food to others is a service to humanity, as is common in many regions of India. The region has a rich cuisine involving both traditional vegetarian, as well as non-vegetarian dishes. It is characterized by the use of rice, legumes and lentils. Its distinct aroma and flavour is achieved by the blending of flavourings and spices including curry leaves, mustard seeds, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, green cardamom, cumin, nutmeg, coconut and rosewater.

chettinad food Rice and legumes play an important role in Tamil cuisine. Lentils are also consumed extensively, either accompanying rice preparations, or in the form of independent dishes. Vegetables and dairy products are essential accompaniments, and tamarind rather than amchoor is the favoured souring agent. Rice is the chief staple as with the rest of South India, and unlike their northern counterparts, the people of South India regard wheat-based breads of any kind as a poor diet. On special occasions, traditional Tamil dishes are prepared in almost the same way as they were centuries ago—preparations that call for elaborate and leisurely cooking, and served in traditional style and ambience. The traditional way of eating a meal involves being seated on the floor, having the food served on a banana leaf, and using clean fingers of the right hand to transfer the food to the mouth. After the meal, the fingers are washed, and the banana leaf becomes food for cows. A typical tamilian would eat Idly/Dosai/uthappam etc. for breakfast and rice accompanied by lentil preparations Sambar, Rasam and curd.

Refreshing Tamil Drinks Filter_coffee Tamil Nadu, especially Chennai, is famous for its filter coffee. Most Tamils have a subtle disliking for instant coffee, therefore filter coffee is more popular. The preparation of filter coffee is almost like a daily chore, the coffee beans have to be first roasted and then ground. The coffee powder is then put into a filter set and hot boiled water is added to prepare the boiling and allowed to set for about 15 minutes. The decoction is then added to milk with sugar to taste. The drink thus prepared is then poured from one container to another in rapid succession to make the perfect frothy cup of filter coffee. An exotic drink that refreshes you and the taste that lingers.

Chettinad cuisine Chettinad-dishes Chettinad cuisine is the cuisine of the Chettinad region of Tamil Nadu state in South India. The Chettiar community, who are a majority in this region, are a very successful trading community. Chettinad cuisine is one of the spiciest and the most aromatic in India.Chettinad cuisine is famous for its use of a variety of spices used in preparing mainly non-vegetarian food. The dishes are hot and pungent with fresh ground masalas, and topped with a boiled egg that is usually considered essential part of a meal. They also use a variety of sun dried meats and salted vegetables, reflecting the dry environment of the region. The meat is restricted to fish, prawn, lobster, crab, chicken and lamb. Chettiars do not eat beef and pork. Most of the dishes are eaten with rice and rice based accompaniments such as dosais, appams, idiyappams, adais and idlis. The Chettinad people through their mercantile contacts with Burma, learnt to prepare a type of rice pudding made with sticky red rice.Chettinad cuisine offers a variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Some of the popular vegetarian dishes include idiyappam, paniyaram, vellai paniyaram, karuppatti paniyaram, paal paniyaram, kuzhi paniyaram, kozhakattai, masala paniyaram, adikoozh, kandharappam, seeyam, masala seeyam, kavuni arisi & athirasam.

The Thalappakatti Biriyani thalapakatti Briyani The Thalappakatti Biriyani Hotel’s roots can be traced all the way back to 1957 . Founded by Mr. Nagasamy Naidu under the name Anandha Vilas Biriyani Hotel in Dindigul. He always wore a turban called THALAPA(a traditional head dress), which over the years became synonymous with his brand and cooking styles, leading him to earn the nick name “Thalappakatti Naidu " which would eventually became the name of our brand and restaurants. Right from the beginning, he always emphasized on taste and ensured that the Biriyani made at his hotel was both delicious and unique . This was achieved and still is by meticulous selection of ingredients prepared from quality masala products. Biriyani was prepared using superior quality Seeragasamba rice, known as Parakkum sittu and meat obtained from top-class breeds of cattle particularly found in the famous cattle-markets of Kannivadi and Paramathi.

The unswerving nature and mouthwatering taste of Thalappakatti Biriyani can be attributed to the fact that all the ingredients were prepared by Thalappakatti Naidu, himself and took great care in doing so. He also prepared a palatable dish know as " Dalcha"( a useful combination dish with Biriyani) by making use of mutton bones and adding vegetables like brinjals , potato, thoor and dhal to it. Despite its roots going back 50 years , his cookery style and secrets passed down to his family members are followed strictly meticulously and thereby have ensured that the " Thalappakatti Biriyani" taste remains unchanged.

Kothu Parotta (Highway Food of Tamilnadu) Kothu Parotta Kothu Parotta (literally, minced parotta), is a delicacy popular in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is made using parotta, egg, meat, and salna, a spicy sauce. Other variants of Kothu Parotta are Muttai Kothu Parotta, Chilli Parotta. The ingredients are thrown on a hot cast iron griddle lubricated with oil. These are minced and mixed by repeated pounding using a heavy iron spatula, the

sound of which can be heard for a long distance. It is served with onion raita. Kotthu Muttai Parotta is a very famous road side food available only in small road side food shops and may also be available in restaurants, but are usually considered better in street food shops. It is very popular in Tamil Nadu, but is also available in other parts of India and in Sri Lanka, where it is known as "Kotthu Roti".Kothu parotta made without the meat and is called as mutai kothu parotta (literally, egg minced parotta). Chicken kothu parotta,and mutton kothu parotta are relished. Like the parottas, it is common in road side shops call thattu kadai.It is also available in other south indian states.

Idli – ( The Common man Food of Tamilnadu ) Idly &s hudney The word idli orignates from a two Tamil words – "Ittu" + "Avi" (To lay and steam). Although the precise history of the modern idli is unknown, it is a very old food in southern Indian cuisine. The first mention of it in writings occurs ca. 920 A.D., and it seems to have started as a dish made only of fermented urad dal. One description ca. 1025 says the lentils were first soaked in buttermilk, and after grinding, seasoned with pepper, coriander, cumin and asafoetida.” For those soft idlis you may have tasted in a restaurant, proper and proportional mixture of rice and urad dhal have to be fermented. Once you get this mixture right, preparing delicious idlis is no herculean task. Idli is usually served with Chutney or Sambar without which the full taste of the dish cannot be enjoyed.

Regional Cuisine mutton-gravyMadurai, Tirunelveli and the other southern districts of Tamil Nadu are known for non-vegetarian food made of mutton, chicken and fish. Parota made with maida or allpurpose flour, and loosely similar to the north Indian wheat flour-based Paratha, is served at food outlets in Tamil Nadu, especially in districts like Virudhunagar, Tuticorin, Tirunelveli and the adjoining areas. Parota is not commonly made at home as it is laborious and time consuming. Madurai has its own unique foods such as jigarthanda, muttaiparotta (minced parotta and scrambled egg), paruthipal (Made of cotton seeds),Karidosai (dosai with mutton stuffing) & ennaidosai (dosai with lots of oil) which are rarely found in other parts of Tamil Nadu.Nanjilnadu (Kanyakumari district) region is famous for its fish curry since the region is surrounded by the three great water bodies of Asia (Indian ocean, Arabian sea and bay of Bengal). Fish forms an integral part of life. Owing to its unique cultural affinity and the availability of coconut, coconut oil forms a base for almost all the preparations of the region.

Indian- Recipes Rice and Pulao

Lemon Rice (Tangy rice preparation) Tools used: kadhai,patila,ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Rice,boiled

1 1/2 cups

Oil

120 ml

Mustard seeds

5g

Dried red chilli,broken

1 no

Split Bengal gram (chana dal),soaked

30g

Green chillies,slit

2no.

Cashewnuts,broken

6-8 no

Curry leaves

8-10no.

Turmeric powder

2gm

Asafoetida

a pinch

Salt

to taste

Lemon juice

60ml

Tamarind Rice

Procedure 2. Heat the oil in a non stick pan. 3. Add the mustard seeds and when they splutter, add the red chilli, split Bengal gram and green chillies and sauté for a minute. 4. Add the cashewnuts and curry leaves and sauté for a minute. Add the turmeric powder and asafoetida and mix well. 5. Add the boiled rice and mix well. Add salt and quarter cup of water. Stir well, cover and cook for two minutes on medium heat. 6. Sprinkle lemon juice and mix well. Serve hot.

Delicious rice prepared using tamarind pulp.

Tools used: kadhai,patila,ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Tamarind pulp

45gms

Rice,soaked

1 1/2 cups

Oil

45ml

Whole dry red chillies,broken

6 no.s

Mustard seeds

5gms

Split Bengal gram

30gms

Split black gram skinless

30gms

Turmeric powder

3gms

Asafoetida

1gm

Curry leaves

10-12 nos

Peanuts,roasted

30gms

Ginger,finely chopped

1 inch piece

Salt

to taste

Sesame seeds (til) (optional)

45gms

Procedure

Method Drain and cook in five to six cups of boiling water. Once the rice is cooked, drain off excess water and spread on a plate. Sprinkle a quarter tablespoon of oil and mix lightly. Heat two tablespoons of oil and add four dried red chillies, mustard seeds, chana dal and dhuli urad dal. Sauté for two to three minutes till dals become brown in colour. Add turmeric powder, asafoetida, curry leaves, roasted peanuts and ginger. Stir-fry for half a minute. Add tamarind pulp and salt and cook for two to three minutes. Dry roast sesame seeds with remaining two red chillies and grind coarsely. Add the sesame seed-red chilli mixture and tamarind mixture to the rice and mix well. Serve hot.

Subz Pulao

Tools used: kadhai,patila,ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Procedure

Basmati rice,washed, soaked

200 g

Carrot, chopped

20g

Green peas

20g

Cauliflower, cut into florets

20g

Cottage cheese, cut into cubes

20g

Refined oil

90ml

Cloves

4 nos

Cinnamon

1 no

Green cardamom

3 no

Bay leaf

1 no

Black peppercorn

6nos

Black cumin

2g

Onions, chopped

60g

Ginger paste

18g

Red chilli powder

3g

Salt

to taste

Green chillies, slit

2nos

Onion, sliced, fried till golden brown

10g

Mace powder

2g

Ginger, julienned

3g

Green coriander, chopped

5gm

Cream

40ml

Method ? ? ? ? ?

Heat the oil in a heavy-bottomed pan; add whole spices and sauté until they begin to crackle. Add onions and stir-fry till transparent. Add ginger paste, red chilli powder, white pepper powder, salt and all the vegetables. Cook 45 minutes. Add the drained rice and water. Bring to the boil. Lower heat and cook covered till the rice is nearly done. Remove the lid and green chillies, onion, mace powder, lemon juice, ginger, green coriander and cream and cook it for 10 more minutes. Sprinkle kewda water and then serve it hot with raita.

Murgh biryani

Tools used: kadhai,patila,ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Procedure

Basmati rice

1kg

Chicken

1kg

For marination Curd

300gm

Ginger garlic paste

54gm

Salt

to taste

Red chilli powder

15 gm

Garam masala

2gm

Ghee

250ml

Bay leaf

3nos

Green cardamom

6nos

Black peppercorn

6nos

Cloves

6 nos

Cinnamon

1 stick

Cumin seeds

4gm

Onion sliced

150gm

Coriander, chopped

8gm

Milk

100ml

Saffron

few strands

Method ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

For the marinade, mix all the ingredients and rub into the chicken. Heat ghee in handi; add whole spices and half the onions, sauté till gilden brown. Add chicken and sauté till the water evapourates. Stir in the rest of the marinade and green coriander. Cook till the chicken pieces are tender. Boil the rice in the chicken stock. Heat a little ghee in a pan; fry the remaining onions till golden broen. Keep aside. Make a mixture of the remaining ghee, milk, and saffron by heating all together. In a pot arrange layers of chicken,rice,fried onions, and the saffron mixture. Repeat till the chicken and rice are over. Cover the pot with a lid and seal with dough. Cook on low heat for 10-15 minutes. Serve hot with mint raita.

TANDOOR OPERATIONS

Marinades Indian Breads

Naan A popular leavened Indian bread.

Tools used: LAGAN, TANDOOR No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Refined flour (maida)

4 cups

Baking powder

1 teaspoon

Soda bicarbonate

1/2 teaspoon

Salt

1 teaspoon

Sugar

2 teaspoons

Egg

1

Milk

1 cup

Procedure

Yogurt

2 tablespoons

Oil

2 tablespoons

Onion seeds (kalonji)

2 teaspoons

Butter

2 teaspoons

Method Sieve flour with baking powder, baking soda and salt. Add sugar, egg, milk, yogurt and water. Knead well into a medium soft dough. Apply a little oil and keep it under wet cloth for one hour. Make eight equal sized balls. Apply a little oil and put onion seeds on top. Press sides first and then centre of the dough ball. Give a round flat shape. Pick in hand and pat to give it a round shape of about six inches diameter. Stretch it from one side to give a triangular shape. Put it on a cloth pad and put it on a preheated tandoor wall or cook in a preheated oven at 200ºC. Remove using skewers when it is crisp and lightly browned on both sides. Serve hot topped with butter.

Khamiri roti (Whole Wheat Sour Dough Bread, Baked In A Tandoor)

Tools used: LAGAN, TANDOOR No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Whole Wheat flour

50 gm

Salt

10 gm

Desi Ghee Water Yeast

10 ml as needed 3gm

Procedure

Method 1. Make a dough of Whole wheat flour, salt, water mixed with yeast, add Desi Ghee 2. Keep it for resting

Taftan (A Unique And Flaky, Part Puff Pastry, Part Leavened Refined Flour Bread Topped With Melon Seeds And Baked In The Rarely Used Iron Tandoor)

Tools used: LAGAN, TANDOOR No. of portions: 4 Ingredient Refined Flour Salt Sugar Egg Full Cream Milk Desi Ghee Saffron

Quantity 50gm 15gm 50gm 50gm 600ml 100ml 1gm

Method 1. Heat the milk bring it to a full boil, add sugar and salt in it 2. Keep it for cooling 3. Now make a dough with refined flour, milk and egg 4. Keep it for resting , knead with desi ghee cook in iron tandoor

Procedure

Warqi Parantha (Exotic Ajwain Flavoured Multi Layered Bread, Baked In Clay Tandoor)

Tools used: LAGAN, TANDOOR No. of portions: 4 Ingredient Refined Flour Salt1 Ajwaine Water Desi ghee

Quantity

Procedure

500gm 5gm 20gm to knead 50ml

Method 1 Make a tight dough of refined flour by adding salt, ajwaine and refined flour with water 2. Keep it for resting, shape the pedas, roll it with the help of the rolling pin, add desi ghee

Dals

Dal Makhani

(a spicy and heavy dal preparation made with a combination of rajma and urad dalCooking)

Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Procedure

Whole black gram (sabut urad)

1/2 cup

Red kidney beans (rajma)

2 tablespoons

Salt

to taste

Red chilli powder

1 teaspoon

Ginger,chopped

2 inch piece

Butter

3 tablespoons

Oil

1 tablespoon

Cumin seeds

1 teaspoon

Garlic,chopped

6 cloves

Onion ,chopped

1 large

Green chillies,slit

2

Tomatoes,chopped

2 medium

Garam masala powder

1 teaspoon

Method Pick, wash and soak sabut urad and rajma overnight in three cups of water. Drain. Pressure cook sabut urad and rajma in three cups of water with salt and half the red chilli powder (you can add half the ginger too if you wish) for three whistles. Open the lid and see if the rajma is totally soft. If not cook on low heat till the rajma becomes totally soft. Heat butter and oil in a pan. Add cumin seeds. When they begin to change colour, add ginger, garlic and onion and sauté till golden. Add slit green chillies, tomatoes and sauté on high heat. Add the remaining red chilli powder and sauté till the tomatoes are reduced to a pulp. Add the cooked dal and rajma along with the cooking liquour. Add some water if the mixture is too thick. Add garam masala powder and adjust salt. Simmer on low heat till the dals are totally soft and well blended. Serve hot.

Masoor Dal

Masoor dal tempered with onion, garlic and curry powder.

Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Split red lentil (masoor dal),soaked in water

2 cups

Oil

1 tablespoon

Onion ,finely chopped

1 medium

Green chilli,finely chopped

1

Ginger

1 tablespoon

Garlic,finely chopped

2 cloves

Curry powder

1 tablespoon

Procedure

Salt

to taste

Lemon juice

1 tablespoon

coriander sprig

a few

Method Heat oil in a deep non-stick pan, add onion and green chilli and sauté for four to five minutes. Add ginger, garlic, curry powder and salt, mix well and cook for two to three minutes. Add three cups of water and lentils, mix and cook for twenty to twenty-five minutes. Add lemon juice, mix well and switch off heat. Garnish with a coriander sprig and serve piping hot.

Dal Panchratan A fine blend of five types of dals.

Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Whole red lentils (sabut masoor)

2 tablespoons

Whole black gram (sabut urad)

2 tablespoons

Procedure

Whole green grams (sabut moong) 2 tablespoons

Split Bengal gram (chana dal)

2 tablespoons

Split pigeon pea (toor dal/arhar dal)2 tablespoons

Pure ghee

1 1/2 tablespoons

Green cardamoms,crushed

2

Cinnamon

1 inch stick

Caraway seeds (shahi jeera)

3/4 teaspoon

Onions,chopped

2 small

Tomato,chopped

1 small

Coriander powder

3/4 teaspoon

Roasted cumin powder

1/3 teaspoon

Turmeric powder

1/4 teaspoon

Fennel seed (saunf) powder

3/4 teaspoon

Red chilli powder

1 1/2 teaspoons

Yogurt,whisked

1/3 cup

Salt

to taste

Cream,whipped

1 1/2 tablespoons

Method Soak all the dals in two cups of water for an hour and a half. Drain and set aside. In a pressure cooker, take all the dals with three cups water and pressure cook for three to four whistles. Heat pure ghee in a pan and add green cardamoms, cinnamon and caraway seeds. Sauté till fragrant. Add onions and sauté till golden brown. Add tomato, coriander powder, cumin powder, turmeric powder, fennel powder and red chilli powder and sauté for two to three minutes. Add yogurt and cook for two minutes more. Add cooked dals, two third cup water and salt and allow the mixture to come to a boil. Serve it hot, garnished with cream.

Dal Lucknowi Dal delicatedly spiced and enriched with milk

Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Split pigeon pea (toor dal/arhar dal),soaked

• Salt

• Green chillies,chopped

Quantity

1 cup

to taste

2

Procedure

• Turmeric powder

1/2 teaspoon

• Oil

2 tablespoons

• Asafoetida

pinch

• Cumin seeds

1 teaspoon

• Dried red chillies,broken

4

• Garlic,chopped

4 cloves

• Milk

1 cup

• Fresh coriander leaves,chopped

2 tablespoons

Method Pressure cook the dal with salt, green chillies, turmeric powder and two cups of water till pressure is released twice (two whistles). Heat the oil in a non stick pan. Add the asafoetida, cumin seeds, red chillies and garlic and sauté till fragrant. Add to the boiling dal and mix well. Add one cup of water and milk and continue to simmer for two to three minutes. Adjust salt, garnish with fresh coriander and serve hot.

Hariyali Paneer Makhni The all time favourite Makhani in its new avtar – green tomatoes lend their colour and taste to this unique dish

Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle

No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Procedure

Paneer (cottage cheese)

250 grams

Lemon juice

1 tablespoon

Green chilli paste

1 teaspoon

Salt

to taste

Tomatoes

6 medium

Oil

1 tablespoon

Green garlic,chopped

4 stalks

Green capsicum,deseeded & chopped

1 medium

Spring onions with greens,chopped

4 stalks

White butter

4 tablespoons

Bay leaf

1

Cloves

5

Green cardamom

3

Cinnamon

1 inch stick

Green garlic,chopped

6-8 bulbs

Ginger paste

1 tablespoon

Mawa (khoya)

3 tablespoons

Garam masala powder

1 teaspoon

Honey

2 tablespoons

Salt

to taste

Fresh cream

1/2 cup

Kasoori methi

1/2 teaspoon

Method Place green tomatoes in a pan, add a little water and boil. Cover and cook for fifteen to twenty minutes. Strain and blend the tomatoes to a puree. Set aside in a bowl. Reserve the cooking liquid. Marinate paneer pieces with lemon juice, green chilli paste and salt for fifteen minutes. Heat oil in a pan, add green garlic greens, capsicum, spring onion greens and sauté. Cool and blend to a puree. Set aside in a bowl.

Heat white butter in a pan. Add bay leaf, cloves, cardamoms, cinnamon and sauté. Add chopped green garlic bulbs, ginger paste and sauté. Add khoya and green tomato puree and sauté. Strain reserved cooking liquid and add to gravy. Add capsicum puree and mix. Add garam masala powder, honey, salt and mix. Add marinated paneer pieces and mix. Add fresh cream and stir gently. Sprinkle kasuri methi and remove from heat. Mix gently and serve hot.

Matar Paneer Green peas and paneer cooked together into a delicious gravy.

Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

• Milk

4 cups

• Green peas

400 grams

• Lemon

1

• Ghee

2 tablespoon+ to deep fry

• Onions

2 large

Procedure

• Ginger

1 inch piece

• Turmeric powder

1/4 teaspoon

• Red chilli powder

1 teaspoon

• Coriander powder

1 teaspoon

• Garam masala powder

1 teaspoon

• Salt

to taste

Method Boil milk twice on high heat and add juice of one lemon. The whey will separate from paneer. Drain the whey, tie up paneer in a muslin cloth and hang it up all day to allow excess water to drain away. Place the muslin with the paneer under a heavy weight to ensure that all the moisture is squeezed out. This will flatten the paneer into a flat round cake when removed from the muslin. Cut the paneer into strips or cubes. Heat sufficient ghee in a kadai and deep-fry till light brown. Drain onto an absorbent paper. Peel, wash and chop onions and ginger finely. Heat two tablespoons ghee in a pan and add chopped onions and ginger. Sauté till lightly browned. Add turmeric powder, red chilli powder, coriander powder, salt and peas and cook, adding a little water, till the peas are tender and a little gravy remains. Add the fried paneer, garam masala powder and boil for five minutes. Serve hot with chappatis.

Rajma Rasmisa A nutritious kidney bean preparation, tastes excellent with steamed rice

Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle

No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Red kidney beans (rajma),soaked1 1/2 cups overnight

Salt

to taste

Oil

3 tablespoons

Bay leaves

2

Onions,finely chopped

2 medium

Ginger,chopped

1 inch piece

Garlic,chopped

6-8 cloves

Tomatoes,pureed

3 medium

Coriander powder

1 tablespoon

Cumin powder

1 teaspoon

Red chilli powder

2 teaspoons

Turmeric powder

1/2 teaspoon

Garam masala powder

1 teaspoon

Procedure

Method Pressure cook rajma with five cups of water and salt till totally cooked and soft. Heat oil in a deep pan. Add bay leaves and onion (you can grate the onion if you wish). Add ginger and garlic and continue to sauté till the mixture turns golden. Add tomato puree, mix and continue to cook. Add coriander powder, cumin powder, red chilli powder, turmeric powder and cook till the oil leaves the masala. Add rajma along with the cooking liquour and mix. Adjust salt and add garam masala powder. Lower the heat and simmer for about fifteen to twenty minutes on low heat. Serve hot with steamed rice.

Shahi Paneer Paneer lovers will make a beeline for this dish so make sure you have sufficient quantities tucked away in the kitchen. Tastes great the following day too!

Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Paneer (cottage cheese)

400 grams

Onion ,quartered

2 large

Oil

2 tablespoons

Cloves

3

Procedure

Black peppercorns

4-5

Cinnamon

2 one inch sticks

Bay leaf

1

Green chillies,slit

2

Ginger paste

1 teaspoon

Garlic paste

1 teaspoon

Cashewnut paste

1/4 cup

Yogurt

1/2 cup

Cream

1/2 cup

Saffron (kesar)

a pinch

Garam masala powder

1/2 teaspoon

Salt

to taste

Green cardamom powder

1/4 teaspoon

Method Cut the paneer into half inch wide and one inch long pieces. Boil the onions in quarter cup of water. Drain and allow to cool. Grind to a fine paste. Heat the oil in a kadai, add the cloves, peppercorns, cinnamon and bay leaf and sauté till fragrant. Add the green chillies and boiled onion paste and sauté

for three to four minutes on low heat so it does not get coloured. Add the ginger paste and garlic paste and continue to sauté for half a minute. Add the cashewnut paste and sauté for another two minutes. Add the yogurt and sauté till the water from the yogurt gets absorbed. Stir in the cream, saffron and garam masala powder and salt to taste. Add the paneer and stir gently to mix. Sprinkle green cardamom powder and serve hot.

Paneer Dhania Korma Paneer cooked in coriander and yogurt gravy.

Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Paneer (cottage cheese)

600 grams

Fresh coriander leaves

4 tablespoons

Yogurt

1 cup

Ginger-garlic paste

1 tablespoon

Turmeric powder

1/2 teaspoon

Dry ginger powder (soonth)

1/4 teaspoon

Green chilli paste

1 teaspoon

Procedure

Salt

to taste

Refined flour (maida)

1 tablespoon

Oil

2 tablespoons

Bay leaf

3

Black peppercorns

8

Green cardamom

7

Clove

5

Garam masala

1/2 teaspoon

Method Take yogurt, ginger-garlic paste, turmeric powder, dried ginger powder, green chilli paste, salt and refined flour in a bowl and mix well. Add 1 cup water and mix well. Cut the cottage cheese into small cubes. Heat oil in a non-stick kadai and add bay leaves, peppercorns, green cardamoms, cloves and sauté for a while. Add the yogurt mixture and cook on low heat. Chop coriander leaves finely and add to the pan. Add the cottage cheese and mix gently. Add a little salt and mix. Add garam masala powder and mix well. Serve hot.

Chicken Dhansaak The popular Parsi dish of mixed dals, mixed vegetables and masalas, served with chicken cooked with masalas.

Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Procedure

Split Bengal gram (chana dal) ,soaked

2 tbsp

Split pigeon pea (toor dal/arhar dal),soaked

2 tbsp

Split red lentil (masoor dal),soaked

to deep fry tables poons

Split green gram skinless (dhuli moong dal),soaked

2 tables poons

Oil

3 tables poons

Cumin seeds

1/2 teaspo on

Red pumpkin (bhopla/kaddu),cut into small cubes

100 grams

Potato,cut into small pieces

1 large

Brinjals

3-4 small

Fenugreek leaves (methi),roughly chopped

1/2 bunch

Green chillies,broken

2

Ginger,chopped

1 inch piece

Garlic

5-6 cloves

Turmeric powder

1/4 teaspo on

Red chilli powder

1/2 teaspo on

Dhansak masala

1 1/2 tables poons

Salt

to taste

Fresh mint leaves,chopped

1/4 cup

Chicken,cut into 1 inch pieces

500 grams

Oil

2 tables poons

Onions

2 mediu m

Tomatoes

2 mediu m

Salt

to taste

Turmeric powder

1/4 teaspo on

For Chicke n

Dhansak masala

1 1/2 tables poons

Red chilli powder

1/2 teaspo on

Mint leaves

a few

Method Heat 3 tbsps oil in a pressure cooker, add cumin seeds, pumpkin, potato, chana dal, tuvar dal, masoor dal and moong dal and mix well. Cube brinjals and add. Add fenugreek leaves, green chillies, ginger and garlic and mix well. Add 3 cups of water, turmeric powder, red chilli powder, dhansaak masala and mix. Add salt and mint leaves and mix. Cover the cooker with the lid and cook under pressure till 3 whistles are given out. Meanwhile heat 2 tbsps oil in a non stick pan. Slice onions and add and sauté for 2-3 minutes.Add chicken and mix. Cut tomatoes into big cubes. Add salt, turmeric powder, dhansaak masala and red chilli powder to chicken and mix well. Add ¼ cup water, cover and cook

Dahi Methi Murgh Chicken cooked in yogurt with the flavour of dried fenugreek leaves.

Yogurt low-fat

1 cup

Dried fenugreek leaves (kasoori methi) powdered 2 teaspoons Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle Dried fenugreek leaves (kasoori methi)

1 tablespoon

No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Chicken,skinned and cut into

Quantity

900 grams

Procedure Salt

to taste

Turmeric powder

1/2 teaspoon

Onion

1 medium

Ginger

1 inch piece

Garlic

5-7 cloves

Green chillies,roughly chopped

3

Oil

2 tablespoons

Caraway seed (shahi jeera) powder

1/4 teaspoon

Cloves

2-3

Green cardamoms

3-4

Cinnamon

1 inch stick

Method Mix together yogurt, salt, turmeric powder, powdered kasoori methi and kasoori methi in a bowl. Add chicken and mix well and set aside to marinate for 2-3 hours in the refrigerator. Roughly chop onion and put into a grinder jar, add ginger, garlic, green chillies and a little water and grind into a smooth paste. Heat oil in a non-stick pan, add caraway seeds, cloves, green cardamoms, cinnamon and the ground paste and sauté for 2-3 minutes. Add a little water and mix well. Cook for 2-3 minutes. Add chicken with the marinade, mix well, cover and cook on medium heat for 15-20 minutes. Switch off heat and let it stand for 10 minutes. Serve hot with steamed rice.

Malwani Chicken Hara Masala Green chutney and coconut milk are the highlights of this delicious chicken curry. Tools used: Handi, patila, ladle No. of portions: 4 Ingredient

Quantity

Chicken,skinned , cut into pieces on bone

Salt

16 the

Procedure 1 medium1. Apply salt and ginger-garlic paste to the chicken pieces and leave aside for ½ hour. Finely chop onions in a chopper.

to taste

2. Heat oil in a non-stick pan. Add black cardamoms, green cardamoms, cloves, cinnamon, bay leaf and onions and sauté till onion is golden.

3. Chop coriander leaves and put in a mixer jar. Add ginger, green chillies and coconut and grind into a fine paste with a little water. 4. Add marinated chicken to the pan and mix well. Cook for 3-4 minutes and add ground masala and mix again. Add ½ cup water and mix. Cover and cook till the chicken is soft.

5. Uncover the pan, adjust salt and add garam masala powder. Mix well and add coconut milk. Mix well and cook for 2 minutes. Serve hot.

Ginger-garlic paste

1 tablespoon

Onions,cut into cubes

2 medium

Oil

4 tablespoons

Black cardamoms

2

Green cardamoms

3-4

Cloves

2-3

Cinnamon

1/2 inch stick

Bay leaf

1

Garam masala powder

1/2 teaspoon

Coconut milk

1/4 cup

Fresh coriander leaves

1/2 small bunch

Ginger,roughly chopped

1/2 inch piece

Green chillies

4-5

Scraped coconut

3 1/2 tablespoons

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